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All Rights Reserved.


Contribution of Persia to the World Civilization
Compiled by:
Prof. M.S. Tajar
University of the Philippines
March 2004

"Persia" is the Greek name of Pars, a province of modern day Iran. Meanwhile, the name Iran (==Land of the Aryans) is derived from the Aryan people, who first moved from Central Asia, and settled in what is now Iran, some 30,000 years ago. And here are some of the most important contributions of the people of Persia or Iran, to the world civilization:

1. The first human civilization - - The Persian Civilization (==Eilam); It was ahead of Egypt by 500 years, of India, by 1,000 years, and of China, by 2,000 years, of Greece by 3,000 years, and of Rome, by 4,000 years! According to Professor Arthur A. Pope, the famous Orientalist (A.H. Saidian, Iran: Land and the people, Tehran 2001 P. 358).

Professor Pope also believes that the world owes its greatest industrial developments, in the early stages, to the Persian Civilization! (Ibid).
Another Orientalist, the French Professor Kalamar of the Sorbonne University of Paris believes that: The Persian Civilization is the mother of all civilizations. (Ibid).
2. The first empire in the world, the Persian Empire (from the Indus River down to the Danube River in Europe and up to the Nile River in Africa; Central Asia, present day Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Palestine, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Macedonia, Cyprus, Lydia and up to the borders of Greece. It stretched from Ethiopia to India, with 127 provinces and 28 different nationalities).
"The Greeks and Romans later copied the best features of the Persian Method of Governing the Empire. (World History, Philip Groisser, New York, 1970, p. 17).
3. Cyrus the Great conquered Babylonia, Assyria, Media and India; His son Cambodia (any influence on the Cambodian People?) added Egypt later, and for the first and the last time in history, all the governments of the known world were ruled under one color!
4. Insurance by Government was started during Cyrus the Great of Persia. (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).
5. Weight, Money and Measurements were standardized in Persia, for the first time, some 2, 500 years ago (Gardeshgari, March 2000)
6. Sanskrit, which is the mother of all modern languages, was born in Iran, before it went to India (Gardeshgari, Aug. 2001).
7. The Stone Age, which dates back some 70, 000 years ago, was started in Iran, the cradle of the earliest human civilization! (Gardeshgari, July 2000).
8. In Iran today, there are 1.2 million historical sites, discovered so far, with some 70,000 historical moulds (Gardeshgari, July 2000).
9. The first accounting tools were found in Iran, belonging to 9,000 years ago. (Gardeshgari, March 2000).
10. The first brick invention took place in Iran. (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2002).
11. The world's greatest masonry work is Perspolis, Iran. (Gardeshgeri, Iran, March, 2000).
12. The architecture of castles originated in Persia thousands of years ago.
13. Iranian tales/legends are some 20, 000 years old.(Ibid)
14. According to the Shah-Namah of Ferdausi, the first caesarian operation (actually Persian-Birth) was done in Persia, some 5,000 years ago upon the birth of Rustom from his mother--- Rudabeh. (Gardeshgari, Iran, Jan. 2000.
15. According to the Persian Holy Books--- Avesta, the first anesthesia was practiced in Persia 1,000 B.C.
16. According to Professor Griffith Taylor of Australia, the homo sapiens (Caucassians) were originated from the Iranian Plateau, also known as the Land of Mahd(the Medes?) and scattered throughout the world some 17,000 years ago (15,000 B.C.)Gardeshgari, Iran, Jan. 2001.
No wonder, the famous Orientalist, Professor Arthur Pope said: "Western world has a vast unpaid debt to the Persian civilization!"
Also Hegel, the great German Philosopher, wrote: The beginning of evolution of man starts with the history of Persia (Hegel, Philosophy of History p. 174).
17. Some paintings in Lorestan caves in Persia, that show a horse-riding man, are 17,000 years old! (15,000 B.C.) (Gardeshgari, Iran, Jan. 2001).
18. The original homeland of the Chaldeans (Father Abraham?) was Susa, Iran. The word Chaldean comes from Khald, which comes from Kurd (Kurdish) who were originally Tajiks (Gradeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2000).
19. According to the Encyclopedia Britanica, "It may well be proved eventually that the human race evolved in Central Asia or Iran" (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2000).
20. According to the Indian Professor, Mereji Baba Kolka: A group of Iranian migrants were settled along the Nile River and founded the Egyptian civilization, thousands of years ago! (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).
21. Sumerians were originally Iranians from Kurdestan. So were the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Assyrians, Achadians; All of them spoke Chaldean, as their original language.
22. According to Professor Filder Petry : The civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia are actually branches of the older Culture of Eilam (Persia), which dates back to 6-10 thousand years ago! (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).
23. The Turkish People are a result of the mixture of the early Iranians, and the Chinese; Semites and Egyptians, Palestinians and Arabs, are the mixtures of Iranians and Africans; while the Indians are a mixture of Iranians (Brahman) and the native blacks of India, Dravidians. (Gardeshgari, March 2000 p. 47).
24. The history of first people of Persia goes back some 30,000 years ago (28,000 B.C.) Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).
25. The oldest rock relief in the world is the Bistoon rock relief in Persia some 2,500 years old.
26. The most mammoth ziggurat was constructed in Persia, near the historic city of Susa, thousands of years ago.
27. The biggest thatch construction also took place in Kerman, Persia, some 2,000 years ago.
28. King Darius of Persia wrote the first Human Rights Charter, some 2,500 years ago. It is still engraved in the Alvand Mountain (Ganj-Nameh), near the ancient Persian Capital of Hagmataneh (Present City of Hamadan).
It was this concept of Human Rights, freedom of religion and the equality of all races that lead to the freedom of the Jews, from the captivity of Babylon, by Cyrus the Great of Persia (539 B.C.).
29. While all other world powers persecuted and discriminated against the Jews (e.g. The Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans and later Germans and the Russians etc.) the Persians were the only world power who actually liberated and protected the Jews (the only monotheistic religion of that time). By doing so, the Persians pioneered the freedom of religion and culture of the minorities in the world. (While some European conquerors, like Alexander the Great, destroyed Persepolis and other areas, or exiled their people, the Persian kings supported the local culture and religion).
30. The first World Super-Highway, that connected the East and the West, was the Silk Road. It joined China to Europe; and its main part was Central Asia (Ancient Persia) with its many Caravans, Caravansarais, Bazaars, etc. etc.
31. The first time that the Navy was used in a Military Operation was by the Persian Army some 2,500B.C.
32. The first time that the ships were used as bridge to cross the river, was done by King Darius, who crossed the Nile and conquered Egypt.
33. The first ruler who planned and constructed the Suez Canal in Egypt was King Xerxes of Persia (539 B.C.).
34. The first time that a canal was built to connect two seawaters was by King Xerxes of Persia, who built the Xerxes' canal, near Greece, and attacked Greece, during the Persian Wars, 500 B.C. (International Herald Tribune, Nov. 15, 2001).
35. One of the earliest Legal Codes in the world is called The Law of the Medes and the Persians (the "unchangeable").
36. The first system of federal government was started in the Persian Empire. There were many Ostans (Stan or State, like what you see in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Hindu-stan, Uzbeki-stan, Etc.) that were run by the satraps or smaller kings (Shah) who were under the great king or Shahan-Shah (Kings' King).
37. The first secret service, called the eyes and the ears of the king, was started in Persia.
38. The first world leader, who was called great, was Cyrus the Great of Persia, some 200 years ahead of Alexander the Great!
39. Darius the Great of Persia established the First Tax System, Customs Duties, Official Records and The Legal Code, in the world level.
40. Countries of the world, whose names are originally Persian:
1) Afghanistan, 2) Iran, 3) Kazakhstan, 4) Azirbaijan (Fire Temples Land), 5) Turkministan, 6) Qirqizistan, 7) Tajikistan 8) Uzbikistan, 9) Pakistan (Land of the Pure), 10) Hindustan (also the Khalistan of the Sikhs).
41. Regions of the world, whose names are originated from Persian:
1) Dagestan (Caucasus), 2) Qara Bagh (Azirbaijan, also Afghanistan) 3) Baluchistan (Iran and Pakistan) 4) Rajastan (India) 5) Panjab or Punjab (India and Pakistan) 6) Waziristan (Pakistan) 7) Turkistan (China) 8) Kurdistan (Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Russia), 9) Bash-Kurtustan (Russia), 10) Hazara (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 11) Kafiristan, 12) Noorestan (Afghanistan) 13)Possibly, the Iranon tribes of the Southern Philippines, the Ire-an of Palawan (Pahlawan?) in Southern Philippines, and the Irian Jaya of Indonesia, etc.
42. Capitals of the world, whose names are Persian:
1.Baghdad (Iraq), combination of Bagh (God, Garden) and Dad (justice / giving) A God given Place (Diosdado) or Garden of Justice (of King Anush Ravan or Anushirvan of Persia).Actually, Baghdad was rebuilt by the Iranian Master Architect, Nou-Bakht, during the Abbasid Era (8th century A.D.).
2.Damascus (City of Musk, capital of Syria, the oldest existing city in the world).
3. Ashq Abad (or Eshqabad) capital of Turkmenistan.
4. Islamabad capital of Pakistan (Note: Abad in Persian means Town, City).
5. Baku (Baad Kubeh == the Windy City) capital of Azerbaijan.
6. Doshanbeh, capital of Tajikistan.
7. Tashkant (or Tashkent) capital of Qirqizistan.
8. Muscat or Muskat (==Musky, see Webster) the Capital of Oman, on the shores of the Persian Gulf.
9. Samarkant (or Samarqand) Capital of Uzbekistan.
10. Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunei).
11. Iravan (Yerevan) capital of Armenia (Armanestan).
12. Astana, Capital of Kazakhstan.
13. Moscow or Musk_va (City of Musk, from Moschi or Moschos==Persian word for musk).
43. Historical cities whose names are Persian:
1) Bukhara, 2) Samarkand 3) Khawrazm (Khiveh) in Central Asia, 4) Allahabad, 5) Ahmed Abad, 6) Heydar Abad, 7) Faiz Abad, 8) Jamshid Pour, 9) Mahmood Abad, 10) Shah Abad etc. (India) 11) Faisal Abad , 12) Heydar Abad, 13) Ghazi Abad,14) Khorram, 15) Chaman, 16)Islamabad, etc. (Pakistan) 17) Rajshahi 18) Cox Bazaar, (Bangladesh) 19) Mozaffar Abad (Pakistani Kashmir) 20) Kufah or Kuppah (Hillside) Iraq 21) Salman Pak (Pure) Iraq, 22) Ctesiphon (Iraq), 23) Halabcha (Iraq) 24) Khorsabad (Iraq) 25) Nippur (Iraq) 26) Khanaqin (Iraq) 27) Khan Azad (Iraq) 28) Diwaniyyah,(Iraq) 29) Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunei) (Note: Bandar in Persian means port city like Bandar Abbas) 30) Banda Aceh (Indonesia) 31) Shirwan (Caucasia) 32) Nakhjavan (Armenia) 33)Mozdok (==Mazdak,Caucasia) 34) Astarkhan (Russia)etc.
44. Famous Persian Queens/Princesses in History:
1) Queen Vashti of King Xerxes ( see the Bible) 2) Queen Esther, a Jewish girl, born in Persia, who became the Queen of Persian King Xerxes (see Old Testament, Book of Esther Note: Esther's tomb is in Hamadan Iran today) 3) Queen Cleopatra of Egypt (Part Greek, Part Persian) 4) Queen Mumtaz Mahal (of Taj Mahal ) the Queen of the Mogul Emperor of India, 5) Princess Shahr Banu of the Sasan Dynasty, the daughter-in-law of Prophet Mohammad (wife of Imam Hussain) 6) Madam Maragel, one of the wives of Emperor Harun Rashid, the Abbasid Khalif (she was the mother of Mamoon, the most intellectual Khalifah in the history of Islamic civilization, who translated and transferred all Greek philosophy and science books into Arabic language), 7) Puran-Dokht, the First Lady of Khaliffah Ma'moon, 8) Princesses in several Arab states of the Persian Gulf, including the mother of Shaikh Makhtum of the United Arab Emirates, 9) Nusrat Bhutto, the First Lady of Pakistan (1971-1978) wife of Pakistani Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. 10) Jihan Sadat, the First Lady of Egypt (1970-1982), wife of President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, etc.
45. In the Field of Fashion: Almost all the clothing and dresses of the Mogul Darbar in the Indian subcontinent (Including Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc) are Persian in origin; that includes the world famous Nehru Tunic or Shirwani, the Jinah Cap (made of lamb skin), the Shalvar Qamis, the Indian Turban, the Parsi Gara (Persian Style Embroidery in India), and a variety of shoes and other accessories, including the well known Sukarno cap in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Philippines, etc.
46. According to Professor Noel Malcon: Necktie (or cravat in European languages) came from the Croats (of Balkans) a branch of Iranian people who migrated from Persia, some 2000 years ago! Even the Serbs are originally from Persia.
(Ref. Malcolm, Noel: Bosnia, A Short History, Mc. Millan, London 1996). Also: CNN World Report, November 16, 2003.
47. In Jewelries: Almost all the famous jewelries of the Moguls of India (including those of Taj Mahal) were designed by Persian master designers. The well-known Kooh-i Noor is a Persian name, which means the mountain of light.
Incidentally, the word Jawaher (as in Jawaher Lal-Nehru) comes from the Persian word Gauhar (==Gem/Precious stone). Also the word La'l is another Persian word, meaning Ruby.

48. In Linguistic Influences:
1. For 700 years, Persian was the official language of the Moguls of Indian subcontinent (including Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc).
Practically, every Mogul miniature contains not only the Persian arts and drawings, but also Persian poetry in Farsi Alphabet (a mixture of Persian and Arabic letters) in them.
2. Urdu language: the official language of Pakistan (and India) is a result of Marriage between Persian-Arabic (which came through Persia) and the Sanskrit. It is now spoken by some 800 million people around the world. ( Even Sanskrit itself was born in Persia, before it reached India, some 7,000 years ago!). Gardeshgari, August 2001.
3. Persian literature of the Indian subcontinent, with great writers and poets, the jewel of them being, the late Dr. Mohammad Iqbal,the National Poet of Pakistan (and India).
4. The names and surnames of almost all the people in Armenia (Armanestan) and the Armenians around the world, is totally or partially influenced by Persian language and culture. (Examples: Melekian, Saturian, Haturian, etc. etc.).
49. The first animal domesticated by man was goat, and it was done in Persia (Manila Bulletin, February 20 ,2001). Also the so-called Arabian Horse (originally Persian) See BBC Worlds' Simpson Report.(Note: In Arabic Language, horse is called Al-Faras, and Persia is called Al-Fars; while the Persian is called Al-Farsi!). Other animals, which were also first domesticated in Persia, are Sheep, Cow, and Camel.
50. The first people who used fish as food were the people around the Persian Gulf, (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 1998).
51. Nargileh/Hookeah or Shishah, the most famous pastime smoking pipe in the Ottoman Empire, and the rest of Asia and the Middle East, was invented in Persia (The Webster Dictionary).
52. The first time in the world that pearl was discovered and harvested (Some 5,000 years ago) was in the Persian Gulf state of Bahrain (which was part of the greater Persia, before the British colonization in the 19th century) CNN 2002.
53. Noodles were first invented in Persia.(Expat. Weekly, Manila 1996)
54. King Feraidun of Persia discovered winemaking method, some 3,000 year B.C.
55. Punch (the mixture of five beverages) although was popularized in British-India, is actually a Persian concoction. Panj in Persian means five, the number of the mixtures. (Philippine Daily Inquirer (Trivia) Feb. 2000)
Also the word Punjab (or Panjab == Five waters/rivers, in India and Pakistan) and Panjacila (Five Principles) of Sukarno in Indonesia, etc.
56. A Persian Alchemist, called Zacharia Alrazi discovered the Industrial Alcohol.(Al Razi is known in the west as Rhazes).
57. The first Beer-making techniques were discovered in Medeo-Persia, some 5-6, 000 years ago. (On the Net://www.udli./ucla.edu/).
The legend says that beer was first brewed by Ninkasi, some 3,500B.C. (For details, see the cult of Ninkasi). *Manila Bulletin,August 30, 2002.
58. Various musical instruments, including setar (cithara or cittern) and probably even guitar, Tamboor (Tambourine,) and Santour (Dulcimer). Other musical instruments are Tar (six-stringed, while Setar is four-stringed) and Ud, from which the medieval European lute developed; as well as Ney or Flute. (Iran Today, MFA, Tehran, 1976, p. 122). Iranian Music has even influenced the Flamenco tradition of Spain. (Iran Today p.122).
59. The first people, who started the "Birthday" celebration, where the Persian nobility and the royalty (So, "Happy Birthday" could originally be a Persian song?)
60. The first time that cake was used in a birthday party was by King Darius of Persia when he conquered Egypt. (500 B.C.)Philippine Daily Inquirer 1999.
61. Polo game was invented in Persia, some 500 years B.C. (Philippine Daily Inquirer 1998).
62. Wrestling, both as an art of war and sports, originated in Persia.
63. Poker was also invented in Persia some 3,000 years ago. It was called Aas. (The Philippine Daily Inquirer (Trivia) June 18, 2000.)
64. Chess, although originated in India, but was perfected and passed on to the West, through Persia, in 10th century; thus the words Chess (from Shah or King) Shakhmat (Shahmat) Rookh (rokh, or Chariot) etc.
65. The world's first known money appeared in Persia, 800 B.C.(Philippine Daily Inquirer,April 27,2002)
66. The words Paradise, Star, Bazaar, Caravan, Bank, Check, Roxan, Rose, Jasmine, Parthian-Shots, (==Parting Shots), Sugar (Shakar), Paw (Paa) Cow (Gau), Name (Naam); Nan (Bread) Nah (No), Bad, Behtar (Better), Mushk (Musk) Pajamas, Orange, Dervish, Khaki, Sepoy (Sepahy), Istana (Astana), Diwan/Divan, Pashmina (the Cashmere) Kooh-e- Noor (Mountain of Light), Pasha, Pesh Marga, Jungle, Magi, Magic, Magician, Mummy (Moumi) Sherryvalies (Shalvar), Kaftan (Caftan), Taffeta, Shawl, Shahtoosh, Sherpa, Bang,Band,Spinach, Saffron, Lemon, Woe! (Waa/Waay!), Gyn (Zan==Woman) Bakh-shish, Penta (Panj==five), Thou (Toh), Me (Man), Am (-am), Eyebrow (Abru), Lips (Lab), Pharao (=úr-zand or son of Ra/Mithra, the Sun-god of Persia and later, Egypt) Buss (Buseh), Officer (Afsar/Afsara), Mouse (Moush), Ouch (Aaakh), Aura (Ahura), Aurora, Murra, Ricksha (Rakh'sh) as well as Pope (Papa/Baba), Pedar (Father) Madar (Mother) Nana (Nanny==Mother), Baradar (Brother) Brethren, Dokhtar (Daughter), etc. (almost 300 words in the English language)
67. The world's first public postal system was invented in the Persian Empire some 3,000 years ago.
68. Cuneiform, the earliest form of writing in the world. The cuneiform (wedge-shaped) was invented in what is known in History as the Medeo-Persia, some 5-600 years ago. (On the Net http://www.cdli.ucla.edu/)
69. The earliest known written documents, clay tablets, inscribed more than 4,000 years ago, were found in the Medeo- Persian region. These cuneiform texts include the earliest known creation myths, legal codes, medical prescriptions and recipes--- Ledgers, deeds, receipts --- and the list of everything, from the types of bird, to the musical instruments and the woods used to make them. (The Philippine Star, May 24, 200 2).
70. The first calendar, composed of a year with 354 days, was invented in Medeo-Persia, 2000 B.C. (*Philippine Daily Inquirer April 27, 2002) And during the Islamic era, another new Calendar, but this time the most accurate calendar ever devised, in the whole history of mankind, came into being --- the Jalali Solar Calendar by the Persian mathematician and poet par excellence, the Great Omar Khayyam.
Omar Khayyam's Persian solar calendar is even more accurate than its Western Gregorian counterpart. (The Persian calendar has an error of only one day in every 5,000 years, as opposed to one in every 3,500 years for the Gregorian calendar). See Iran Today, MFA, Tehran, 1976 p. 130.
71. The latest archeological excavations show that, glass was first produced in the Asia-Minor region, some 4, 000 years ago. (Echo of Islam Magazine, Tehran, Iran. Aug. 1986).
72. The Art of Miniature was originated in Persia, by Maani (founder of Manichaeism) some 2,600 years ago, and reached China, later, (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002)
73. The first operation on human skull in the world, took place in Persia, some 5,000 years ago! (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002)
74. The origins of all the Indo-European languages, including Indian, German, English, Greek, Spanish, French and many other European languages today, are Iranian. (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002) So, it should be called Irano-European, not Indo-European!
75. Did you know where the Saxons (of Saxony - - Germany and the Anglo-Saxons of Britain) came from? Well, the British Orientalist, Sir Percy Sykes, himself a Saxon, went around the world to look for their origin. He found out that the Saxons originated from the Central Iranian Plateau, which was called Sakstan (Present day Sistan- Baluchistan!) Gardeshgari, Iran, Sept. 2002. (How about the Saxan or Sassan Dynasty of Persia?).
76. The Iranian Capital of Tehran with 3,200 years of history has much greater historical treasures to offer to humanity than the entire country of Greece! (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002)
77. Domes of the Byzantine Churches and Palaces were an adaptation from the Persian Architecture (Gardegari, Iran, Aug. 2000)
78. The world famous Holland Windmill is originally Persian, and the Dutch know about it! (Gardeshgari, Iran, Aug. 2001).
79. The Sumerians and Egyptians were the early migrants who came from the Iranian Plateau, thousands of years ago! (Gardeshagri, Iran, Sep. 2002).
80. The Sumerian Seamen (probably) discovered America, many centuries before Christopher Columbus. (Gardeshgari, Iran, Aug. 2001)
81. Archery of which the world famous Parthian Shots (or Parting Shots) is a good proof, originated in Persia.
82. Persian carpet, walnuts, hazelnuts, Pistachio nuts, pilau, kebab, beryani, shawarma, naan (bread) yoghurt, spinach, saffron (the world's most precious spice), rice, grapes, lemon, tulip, rose and perfume-were all originated in Persia.
83. Vertical windmill was invented in Persia, in 9th century, A.D. (Ancient Inventions p. 398). Also the hand operated mills.
84. Trousers called Shalwar, were invented by the Persians (while the Greek and the Romans preferred skirts).
Also the world famous shawl and many other innovations in clothing and shoe making, including a variety of hats and caps, etc. The word pajama in English comes from the Persian words Paa (leg) and Jameh (clothes).
85. The wheel was first invented in the cradle of civilization, the area that is known in History as Medeo-Persia, some 5,000 years ago. (*Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 27, 2002) See Persian wheel (Webster Dictionary).
86. Chariots of war were invented during Cyrus the Great of Persia (559-529 B.C.)
87. Cross, as an instrument of punishment for the criminals was first invented by the Persians, and it was
adopted by the Romans, some 2,300 years ago.(Philippine Daily Inquirer 1997) Also Swastika, etc.
88. Condom comes from the Persian word kandu or kondu, a long vessel made from the intestines of the animals and used for storing corn. Even today kondu (or kendu) is used in Persian language for the beehives as well as small clay storage for grains or food. (Condominium also?). Well, in Western Iran, there is a town called Kanduan [plural of kandu]. In that town, all the houses are dug in the mountain, on top of each other--a natural condominium).
89. Qanat or kanat, the underground water supply systems that are stretched several miles, were also invented in Persia.
90. Silo for grains preservation, some 1300 B.C. (Ettelaat, Iran Daily, 2001).
91. Baad-gir or Wind Shaft, the earliest form of modern air-conditioners,which was built on top of the roof in order to catch the fresh air and transfer it inside the building.
92. Aub-Anbar, the underground water reservoir that kept water cool and safe, for the community (Take note of the word Aub, the Persian word for water and its relation to Eu de Cologne, water of cologne; also the ending of the words like Mindan-ao, Dav-ao, Lan-ao,Mara-nao, Maguin-danao, Tugigar-ao, Suri-gao, Dan-ao (even Tamar-ao, Carab-ao?) as well as Aub-dast -- Filipino and Chinese Muslims' ablution with water, or Panj-ab, in India and Pakistan. etc.).
93. The first man who used an Airplane, to fly, was a legendary Persian King, by the name of Keykaus. He tied 4 big birds to his coach and placed some baits in a distance, dangling in front of the birds to catch. (And thus for him to fly!).
94. The oldest combination lock, (with secret numbers) was made some 800 years ago in Persia (Professor Arthur Pope, History of Persian Civilization. c/o Ettelaat Daily, Tehran, Iran, January 25, 2003).
95. Embroidery was first invented by the Scythian people (a branch of Persians) Ref. Webster Dictionary & CNN 2003.
96. The first travelers Inns called caravansaray (Inns of caravan) some of which still exist along the Silk Road, were built in Persia.
97. The largest mud-brick structure is the citadel of Bam, in Kerman Province of Iran. It is 2,000 years old!
98. Parasol (Decorative Umbrella), used as an honor, over the heads of the kings and the dignitaries, was invented in Persia, too.
99. Crown or Taj (See Taj Mahal)- the bejeweled headpiece for the King or the Queen, was first used in Persia.
100. The art of tile-work was invented and perfected in Persia, many centuries ago. It was copied by others, but was never equaled in its elegance and beauty.
101. Persian Blinds (or Persiana in Spanish and other European Languages) is the origin of what is known today as the Venetian Blinds (Webster Dictionary).
102. Blue Jars. The blue jars with floral designs (just like the Blue Domes) are also a Persian invention. The Chinese adopted these blue jars, after Genghis Khan invaded Persia in 13th century A.D.
103. Chewing gum (called saqqez) as well as a variety of other gums, including the well-known mummy or moumi (Webster Dictionary).
104. There are many other ancient inventions that are originated in the greater Persia. Some of them are as follows:
1) Needle 2) Weaving (like Taffeta, Shawl, etc.) 3) Roads/Hi-ways 4) Chain mail (for body defense) 5) Spoons and Forks 6) Boots 7) Gloves 8) Soap 9) Shampoo, 10) Perfume 11) Protocols and Etiquette 12) Turkish Bath 13) Dagger, hammer, axes 14) Military Marches, 15) Catapult, 16) Puppet Show 17) Tradition of syndication (for farmers, workers, professionals) 18) Dams 19) Sickle 20) Jars and Pots of clay 21) Brick making 22) Metals 23) Seals (Origin of printing?) 24) Wheel (Persian wheel) 25) Coins 26) Oil 27) Compass 28) Animal skin for writing 29) Measurement 30) Lighthouse 31) World map 32) Basic Human Flight 33) Military Fire Power 34) Alphabet 35) Early Electrical devices 36) Fast Reporting system (Like mores code, using mirror and sun) etc. (for more details see Iran: Land and the People, by Mr. A.H. Saidian, Tehran, 2001)

105. King Cambyses II, of Persia, was the first person that examined the dead bodies of the mummies of Egypt, after conquering the Egyptian City of Memphis, in 600 B.C. (Philippine Daily Inquirer (Trivia)June 15,2000.)
106. Also, the first people who fought against the superstitious beliefs of the Egyptians (e.g. cats, bulls, crocodiles worshipped as gods) were the Persians. King Cambyses II threw many cats over the walls of Memphis City, and the Egyptians who believed in cats as gods, were so scared that they surrendered the city, without a fight (Philippine Daily Inquirer,Trivia ,2001).
107. The first person that gazed into a crystal ball (to see the world events, just like a TV or a satellite) was King Jamshid of Persia (see Jam-e Jamshid).
108. Persians were also pioneers in Astronomy, as Bible states that the Magies saw the birth of Jesus Christ in the stars.(see Mathew, Chapter II).
109. The belief that Number 13 is an unlucky one, was started in Persia, some 5,000 years ago. Even today, all Persians (the Kurdish, the Baluchis, the Central Asians, etc.) leave their homes every 13th day of the New Year (March 21) and they go out in the fields, so as to avoid the bad luck of the 13th day of the New Year.
110. Incidentally, the Phenomenon of the New Year itself is a Persian Tradition, where the Natural New Year (first day of the Spring, not middle of the winter!) is celebrated on March 21, every year. (CNN,January 01, 2003).
111. The Persian Businessmen Mr. Hosain Qermezian and his brothers, in Canada, introduced the first Mega Mall in the West, during the 40s and the 50s. In that Mega Mall (which was probably inspired by the Persian Bazaar or Timcheh) everything, from a needle up to the latest car, is available under one roof!
112. The world's most glamorous building-cum-mausoleum, (one of the Seven Wonders of the World) the Taj Mahal in India (also the Shish Mahal or Mirror Palace in Pakistan) was designed by a Persian Master Architect, Ustad Eisa Shirazi and his son Mohammad Shirazi, in 1631 A.D. (Village Voice, Manila, Feb.2002. Also the world's most glamorous and the best loved Queen was a Persian Lady,Arjumand Banu or Mumtaz Mahal, whose Mausoleum is also the best ever; -- The Taj Mahal. In the words of the English poet, Sir Edwin Arnold: "Not a piece of Architecture as other buildings are, but a proud passion of an Emperor's love wrought in living stones." (Village Voice, Manila Feb.2002).
113. The world's most educated (100% highly educated) Community is that of the Parsis (the Persian Zoroastrians) who live mostly in Iran, India, Pakistan and England. They are also one of the most financially successful communities in the world. (They established the first Cancer Hospital, and many other educational and Social Centers, including some of the oldest and biggest libraries in India - -see International Herald Tribune, April 24, 2003). Incidentally, the most well known poet of the Gujrati language in India is a Parsee by the name of Khabar-Dar.
114. The world's most expensive residence belongs to a Persian by a name of Dr. Nasser Khalili, who lives in England. His classical English Mansion is worth over $240 Million (Manila Bulletin, June, 12, 200).
115. For further details on Persian Culture, see Webster Dictionary for terms such as: Persiana, Persian ammoniac, Persian apple, Persian berry, Persian blue, Persian buttercup, Persian cat, Persian clover, Persian daisy, Persian date, Persian deer, Persian earth, Persian green, Persian iris, Persian lamb, Persian lawn, Persian lilac, Persian melon, Persian nightingale, Persian rose, Persian wheel, etc.
116. In the fields of Religion and Philosophy: The oldest living religion in the world, is Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Persia, (Philippine Star, Jan. 26, 2002).
117. The first divinely revealed religion which still exists today is Zoroastrianism. No other religion has influenced other world Religions like Zoroastrianism. It has influenced Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, (Mahayana), Manicheanism and the Pagan European Cults. Over half of the world has virtually accepted a significant portion of Zoroastrian teachings. Many Christian traditions as well as some of its Philosophy are actually the adaptations from the Zoroastrianism and Mithraism, the Persian Religion of Sun god worshipping. Here are some examples:

1. The Christmas is, in reality, the Birthday of Mithra the Sun-god (Not the Son of God!) which was born on December 25, after the Saturnalia Festivals).
2. Virgin Mary (mother of Baby-god Jesus) resembles Anahita, the Persian goddess, The Mother of gods!
3. Sunday (the Christians Holiday) is actually dedicated to Sun-god or Mithra, the Persian god.
4. Songs and praises in the churches.
5. Bread and wine tradition.
6. The white ropes of the priests.
7. Celibacy of the Priests and Nuns
8. Cross, Swastika, etc.
9. The symbol of Smiling Sun (Mithra) on some Christian flags (like that of Argentina) etc.
(Note: Even the Egyptians adopted the Persian Sun-god - - Mithra, as their highest deity, and called him "Ra" (Probably short for Mithra). In fact, Pharaoh [The title of the Kings of Egypt] means The Son of Ra!). Is it possible that Ray in English has also something to do with Ra or Mithra? How about Rex (king) in Latin, Rey (king in Spanish), etc?

Aside from Zoroastrianism, the other religious and philosophical movements of Persia, include Mithraism (the Sun god), which was also adopted by the Romans; Manicheanism, which was later on adopted by the Christians in North Africa, and probably the first communist movement called Mazdakism (500 A.D.) Later on Sufism, Carmathism, Ismaili (Agha Khani), Babism, Bahaism, Akhbarism, Kasravism, etc., etc.

118. According to some scholars, the most important person in the recorded history of religion, is the Persian Prophet - - Zoroaster. (Check Internet, Persian Culture, also Mithraism, etc).
119. FAMOUS PERSIAN PROPHETS/RELIGIOUS FOUNDERS:
1. Zoroaster (500 B.C.), Founder of Zoroastrianism, the oldest living religion in the world, that has influenced all other religions, including Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
2. Maani "The Messenger of Light" (the founder of Gnosticism and Manicheanism that influenced Christianity, later). The expression of "Manichaean language" or religious absolutism came from there.
3. Mazdak (founder of Mazdakism, a communist movement at 500 AD).
4. Baabak Khorram-din, 800 AD (Founder of the Religious-Political movement of Khorram Dinan).
5. Hassan Sabbah (founder of Militant Esmailism and the originator of the Assassins, or the Hashashin movement, also known as Fedayins, 11th century A.D).
6. Agha Khan Mahallati 1900 A.D. (Founder of Agha Khani / Esmaili sect.).
7. Baab (Ali Mohammad) 1900 A.D. (Founder of Babism).
8. Bahaullah,1900 A.D. (Founder of Bahaism).
9. Shah Nematullah Kermani, Sheikh Safi-Uddin, Safi Ali Shah and many other founders of Sufi Orders.
120. The hippies of Europe and America got their hairstyle and their shabby looks (and probably their ideas, too from the Fekirs and Qalandars of India, who in turn got it from the Dervishes and Sufis of Persia!
121. The philosophy of Yin and Yang (male-female/positive-negative), which is the foundation of the Taoist religion in China, Korea, Japan, etc., was first introduced by the Persian Prophet Zoroaster, as the Ahura Mazda (God of light) and Ahriman (God of darkness) some 5,000-6,000 years ago.
It was later on expanded further by another Persian Prophet-Maani, as religious and philosophical Dualism of Good and Evil (see Webster).
122. The concept of Celibacy in Christianity was one of the many influences of the Persian Prophet Maani on the Christian Faith ("Manicaean influences on the Augustinian Doctrines") see Webster.
123. Special respect for the animals, particularly cows and bulls, which was very popular among the early Egyptians and the Indians today, has an Aryan (Iranian) origin. It's because of those animals' great roles in agriculture and human sustenance. (And considering that the early Egyptians and the Brahmans of India, were actually the emigrants from the Land of Arya, the connections becomes more evident).
But, while the Indian and the Egyptian cultures considered all animals sacred, even the dangerous ones (crocodiles, snakes, disease-carrying mice, etc.) the Persians respected the good ones, but also did not hesitate to kill the harmful.

124. The latest archeological, historical and linguistic researches very clearly show that the Europeans (Eastern and Western) were originally the migrants from the Land of the Aryans (Iran). So were the ruling classes of Egypt (the Pharaohs), and India (the Brahmans), as well as the ancient Greeks and the Romans. In other words, all those leading cultures of the ancient world were the children of the migrant Iranians of the olden days.
But how about the White Americans of today? Well, the White Americans are actually the children of of the European migrants, or the "grandchildren" of the Persians or the Iranians.
125. The first people, who accepted and believed in Jesus Christ, were the Persians. See the story of the three Magi/Wise men/Kings, who came from Persia to see baby Jesus (Ref. Mathew II).
126. In Political and Economic Fronts. The first revolution in the Middle East, even ahead of the 1917 Russian Revolution, was the Mashruta (Constitutional) Revolution of Iran, in 1906. It changed the country from an absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy.
127. The first religious revolution in the world, that led to the establishment of an Islamic Republic, took place in Iran in 1979. Ahmad Ben Bella, the revolutionary president of Algeria called it the "Miracle of our Age". (Ettelaat, Tehran January 1980).
That Islamic Revolution caused the Revival of the Islamic aspirations all over the Muslim world, which is visible everywhere, today. (Time Magazine, New York, April 16, 1979. Also International Herald Tribune September 4, 2002)
128. The first nationalization of oil and other natural resources in the Middle East was lead by Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq of Iran, in 1940s and 1950s.
129. The first oil well in the world was found and drilled in the Persian City of Baku (or Baad Kubeh == the Windy City, now the capital of Azerbaijan) in the 1394, A.D. (New World, Siemens Magazine, Germany Sept. 2001). It was in this same region that the first Temple of Fire was built by the followers of Zoroaster the Persian Prophet some 5, 000 years ago).
130. The first oil pipeline also was built in Baku, from the woods of the Caspian region.
131. The first oil tanker in the world was built in Baku, and it was named after the Persian Prophet the Zoroaster. (Source: New World, Siemens Magazine, Germany, Sept. 2001).
132. The largest inland body of water in the world, is located in Northern Persia. The Caspian Sea, with the best Caviar in the world, plus oil, gas and a lot of flora and fauna.
133. In Poetry and Literature:
A. One Thousand and one Nights (The "Arabian Nights" or corrected The Persian Nights, written in the 10th century A.D.)
B. Undoubtedly the best poetry that was created by man, in:
1. The Rubaiyyat of Omar Khayyam
2. The Shah Namah of Firdausi (The "Paradise Man") the story of Rostum and Sohrab.
3. The Math-nawi. The ultimate light of mysticism and Sufism by Jalalud Din Rumi. (The best-seller in the US today)!
4. The best Love Songs in the Odes of Hafez of Shiraz, who is considered as the "Greatest Poet ever who walked this earth"! (See The Gift, Collection of Hafiz's Poems, by Daniel Ladinsky, 1998, N.Y., USA). Hafez is also adored and "worshipped" by J.W. Goethe, the greatest poet of Germany and Europe).
5. The classical Persian Romanticism by Nezami of Ganjeh;
6. The Purest Sufi Expressions in the "Ruba'iyyat"of Baba Tahir "The Oryan".
7. The Sweetest language in poetry and prose in the Rose Gardens (Gulestan and later Bustan) of Sheikh Sa'di.

In Islamic Sciences and Islamic Civilization:

The Persians also played the greatest role in the development of the Islamic Sciences and Islamic Civilization, as well as the preservation and spreading of it, in the world, as follows:

134. Salman Al-Farsi was the first person to translate the Holy Quran into a foreign language (i.e. Persian).
135. The first time the Holy Qur'an was printed in a Muslim country (by modern machines) was in Persia, in 1866 A.D. (Ref. Ettelaat International, Tehran, 1996).
136. The first melodious translation of the Holy Qur'an (as the original Arabic is also melodious) for a better reading and an easier memorization of its verses, by the non-Arabs, was done by the Persian scholar, Dr. Fazlollah Nikayin - - in the USA(1998).
This translation which is titled, "Qur'an: A Poetic Translation from the Original" is first of its kind, not only in English language, but also in any other translation of the Holy Qur'an, in 1,400 year history of Islam. (Reference: The Ultimate Book 2000, Skokie Publications (Illinois) U.S.A.)
137. The most translated language of the entire Holy Qur'an in the world is Persian---some one thousand translations (Ref. Ettalaat International, Tehran, 1996)
138. The youngest person, who ever memorized the entire Holy Qur'an, was a 5-year-old Persian boy by the name of M.H. Taba-Tabai. (He received a Ph.D. from the Hijaz Islamic College of England, as the youngest scholar of the Holy Qur'an in 1996).
139. The greatest Imam among the majority of Muslims---Imam Abu Hanifah was a Persian.
140. The greatest master of SUFISM (Islamic Mysticism) was Al-Ghazzali, another Persian teacher, (Some orientalists consider him as the most qualified scholar in Islam, aside from the Prophet Mohammad himself).
141. The greatest interpreter of the Holy Quran in Islam, is Tabari, also a Persian.
142. All the earliest collectors and writers of the traditions of Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) who preserved and spread his words, were Persians--Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidi, Ibni Maja, Nasai and Abu Dawoud.
143. The man, who finally defeated the western crusaders, liberated Jerusalem from the invaders and saved the Muslims from a total annihilation, was a Kurdish (Persian) man by the name of Salahud Din (Saladin the Magnificent).
144. The greatest grammarian of Arabic language was a Persian--the Sibwaih of Shiraz.
145. The first compiler of Arabic Dictionary was a Persian by the name of Khalil Bin Ahmad.
146. The first scholar who organized, formulated and established the Science of Rhetoric, Elocution and Prosody in Arabic language was a Persian master by the name of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jorjani (Gorgani).
147. The greatest Philosophical mind after Aristotle, who preserved philosophy from destruction during the Dark Ages (of Europe) was Al-Farabi the Persian. He was a linguist and a music virtuoso. He is known as the Second Master. (After Aristotle).
148. The greatest intellectual during the Middle Ages was Abu Ali Sina (Avicena) the Persian Physician-Philosopher (see International Herald Tribune, Oct. 11, 2001).
149. The first scientific book that was printed in the world, after the invention of the printing machine, was the Cannon of Abu Ali Sina (or Avicena, the Persian Physician-Philosopher). His medical masterpiece was the most popular textbook of Medicine, in European Colleges and Universities, during the Middle Ages and up to the 18th Century A.D.(By the way, the earliest College of Medicine, recorded in the History of Iran was "Gundishapur Medical School", 500 A.D. Also take note that the terms, Medica, Medicine, etc. came from Medes==Medeo-Persian Men).
150. The first man who introduced Arabic numerals in the West (which used Roman Numerals, before) was a Persian scholar by the name of Al Kharwrazmi (9th century A.D.).
151. The first physician in the world, who treated Small Pox, was Zakariyya Al Razi (10th century A.D.).
152. The first scientist who invented a computing machine was Al-Kashani (15th century A.D.).
153. The first scientist who explained the cause of rainbow in 13th century A.D. was another Persian called Qutb Shirazi. (Source: Islam: A global civilization, Cambridge, U.K. 1995.)
154. The first scientist who measured the distance between the Earth and the Moon was a Persian by the name of Naseer ud-Din Tousi (13th century A.D.).
155. The first physician who diagnosed and treated Meningitis during the Dark Ages was Abu Ali Sina (11th century A.D.). (Source: The Islamic Text Society Cambridge U.K. 1995).
156. The greatest Muslim scholar, who collected and preserved Islamic traditions and teachings, is another Persian by the name of Mohammad Majlesi (17th century A.D.) His masterpiece on Islamic teaching and traditions (titled, Behar Al-Anwaar) is 100 plus Volumes.
157. The most prominent religious and political figure in the history of Islam in the past 1,000 years (as far as the political and religious revival of the Muslim world is concerned) was Ayatullah Ruhullah Khomeini, the leader of the Islamic Revolution of Iran (1979). He was named, Man of the Year (Time, 1980).
158. The greatest collection and preservation of the Islamic Arts in the world belongs to a Persian patron of Arts, by the name of Dr. Nasser Khalili, who lives in England. (Mabuhay Magazine, Philippines, 1998).
159. Qawwali, the Art of Sufi chanting with music, started in Persia, in the 9th century A.D. before it came to India (also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, etc.) It was also spread westward to Turkey and other countries up to Algeria, Tunesia and Morocco, in North Africa.
It is a form of Praising Allah, remembering the Holy Prophet, and the spiritual men of God, thru musical songs.
160. The first scientists who claimed that the Earth was actually round (not flat, as the Europeans believed) were the Muslim scholars of Persia (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2002).
161. Persian Muslim Scientists knew the Law of Gravity, as early as 840 A.D. (Ibid).
162. The Iranian master musicians, like Abu Ishaq Musuli, actually thought the Arabs the Fine Art of Music, but later on they gave up on music, upon conversion to Islam, because of Religious reasons (Motahhari,Khadamat, Tehran, Iran, 1970).
163. The most popular word among the Muslim Communities, around the world for Teacher/Guru/Master/Spiritual Leader, is Ustad/Ustaz, a Persian word which means Educator/Trainor .
164. Muslims in Central Asia, South West Asia, South East Asia and China, still use the Islamic terms, in Persian, rather than in the Original Arabic Language. Examples are: Namaz (Prayer) Ruzah (Fasting) Bang (call to prayer) Aub-dast (Ablution) Farman (Teaching) etc. etc.
165. The most brilliant and the most intellectual Caliph in the History of Islam, was a half-Persian, by the name of Ma-moon. His father was Khalifa Haroon Ar-Rashid, and his mother, a lady from Persia by the name of Maragel.
This same Khalifa Ma-moon, translated and transferred all the Greek Philosophy and Science books into Arabic (by the help of mostly Iranian scholars) and thus saved Ancient Science and Philosophy for mankind, by protecting them from destruction during the Dark Ages of Europe! He established the House of Wisdom or House of Sciences in Baghdad in 9th Century A.D.
166. The first Muslim woman in the world, who won the Noble Peace Prize, was the Iranian Lady Judge, Shirin Ebadi (Year 2003).
167. Iran was probably the only country in the Middle East (and one of the few in the world) that was not colonized by the foreign powers, in the Modern History.
168. One of the chief architects of OPEC (the first oil cartel in the Third World, which turned many poor oil producing countries into super-rich) was the Shah of Iran, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (International Herald Tribune, October 18, 2003)
169. The world's most exclusive "couturier" (for the rich and the famous) is Mr. "Bijan", an Iranian master designer in New York with over $300 Million of income annually. (Mohajer, info@iranshouse.org.)
170. The First Sheikhul Islam of Siam (Modern Thailand) was a Persian Statesman by the name of Shaikh Ahmad Qommi (1600 AD). He was later on appointed by the King of Thailand as the Prime Minister of Siam. (Thailand: A Golden Land by M. Tamhidi, Al Hoda Publishing, Tehran. 2001)
Also, the first Sheikhul Islam of Aceh in Indonesia, Seyyed Hassan Astar Abadi was a Persian religious leader, during the reign of "Sultan Malek Salek" of Aceh, 17th century. (ibid.)

Some Sources used:
1. Iran Today, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran, 1976
2. "Iran: Land and the People", by Saidiaan, A.H., Tehran, 2001.
3. Gardeshgari, Tourism Magazine of Iran.
4. Internet, under Persia/Arya/Zoroaster,etc.